Diffusion and Denoising: Explaining Textual content-to-Picture Generative AI

Diffusion and Denoising: Explaining Text-to-Image Generative AIDiffusion and Denoising: Explaining Text-to-Image Generative AI


The Idea of Diffusion

Denoising diffusion fashions are educated to drag patterns out of noise, to generate a fascinating picture. The coaching course of entails exhibiting mannequin examples of photographs (or different knowledge) with various ranges of noise decided in line with a noise scheduling algorithm, aspiring to predict what components of the info are noise. If profitable, the noise prediction mannequin will be capable of step by step construct up a realistic-looking picture from pure noise, subtracting increments of noise from the picture at every time step.

diffusion and denoising processdiffusion and denoising process

In contrast to the picture on the high of this part, fashionable diffusion fashions don’t predict noise from a picture with added noise, a minimum of in a roundabout way. As a substitute, they predict noise in a latent house illustration of the picture. Latent house represents photographs in a compressed set of numerical options, the output of an encoding module from a variational autoencoder, or VAE. This trick put the “latent” in latent diffusion, and drastically diminished the time and computational necessities for producing photographs. As reported by the paper authors, latent diffusion hurries up inference by a minimum of ~2.7X over direct diffusion and trains about 3 times quicker.

Folks working with latent diffusion typically speak of utilizing a “diffusion mannequin,” however in reality, the diffusion course of employs a number of modules. As within the diagram above, a diffusion pipeline for text-to-image workflows usually features a textual content embedding mannequin (and its tokenizer), a denoise prediction/diffusion mannequin, and a picture decoder. One other vital a part of latent diffusion is the scheduler, which determines how the noise is scaled and up to date over a collection of “time steps” (a collection of iterative updates that step by step take away noise from latent house).

latent diffusion model architecture diagramlatent diffusion model architecture diagram


Latent Diffusion Code Instance

We’ll use CompVis/latent-diffusion-v1-4 for many of our examples. Textual content embedding is dealt with by a CLIPTextModel and CLIPTokenizer. Noise prediction makes use of a ‘U-Net,’ a sort of image-to-image mannequin that initially gained traction as a mannequin for purposes in biomedical photographs (particularly segmentation). To generate photographs from denoised latent arrays, the pipeline makes use of a variational autoencoder (VAE) for picture decoding, turning these arrays into photographs.

We’ll begin by constructing our model of this pipeline from HuggingFace elements.

# native setup
virtualenv diff_env –python=python3.8
supply diff_env/bin/activate
pip set up diffusers transformers huggingface-hub
pip set up torch --index-url https://obtain.pytorch.org/whl/cu118


Make certain to examine pytorch.org to make sure the proper model to your system if you happen to’re working domestically. Our imports are comparatively easy, and the code snippet beneath suffices for all the next demos.

import os
import numpy as np
import torch
from diffusers import StableDiffusionPipeline, AutoPipelineForImage2Image
from diffusers.pipelines.pipeline_utils import numpy_to_pil
from transformers import CLIPTokenizer, CLIPTextModel
from diffusers import AutoencoderKL, UNet2DConditionModel, 
       PNDMScheduler, LMSDiscreteScheduler

from PIL import Picture
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt


Now for the small print. Begin by defining picture and diffusion parameters and a immediate.

immediate = [" "]

# picture settings
top, width = 512, 512

# diffusion settings
number_inference_steps = 64
guidance_scale = 9.0
batch_size = 1


Initialize your pseudorandom quantity generator with a seed of your alternative for reproducing your outcomes.

def seed_all(seed):



Now we are able to initialize the textual content embedding mannequin, autoencoder, a U-Web, and the time step scheduler.

tokenizer = CLIPTokenizer.from_pretrained("openai/clip-vit-large-patch14")
text_encoder = CLIPTextModel.from_pretrained("openai/clip-vit-large-patch14")
vae = AutoencoderKL.from_pretrained("CompVis/stable-diffusion-v1-4", 
unet = UNet2DConditionModel.from_pretrained("CompVis/stable-diffusion-v1-4",
scheduler = PNDMScheduler()

my_device = torch.system("cuda") if torch.cuda.is_available() else torch.system("cpu")
vae = vae.to(my_device)
text_encoder = text_encoder.to(my_device)
unet = unet.to(my_device)


Encoding the textual content immediate as an embedding requires first tokenizing the string enter. Tokenization replaces characters with integer codes equivalent to a vocabulary of semantic models, e.g. by way of byte pair encoding (BPE). Our pipeline embeds a null immediate (no textual content) alongside the textual immediate for our picture. This balances the diffusion course of between the offered description and natural-appearing photographs normally. We’ll see the right way to change the relative weighting of those elements later on this article.

immediate = immediate * batch_size
tokens = tokenizer(immediate, padding="max_length",
max_length=tokenizer.model_max_length, truncation=True,

empty_tokens = tokenizer([""] * batch_size, padding="max_length",
max_length=tokenizer.model_max_length, truncation=True,
with torch.no_grad():
    text_embeddings = text_encoder(tokens.input_ids.to(my_device))[0]
    max_length = tokens.input_ids.form[-1]
    notext_embeddings = text_encoder(empty_tokens.input_ids.to(my_device))[0]
    text_embeddings = torch.cat([notext_embeddings, text_embeddings])


We initialize latent house as random regular noise and scale it in line with our diffusion time step scheduler.

latents = torch.randn(batch_size, unet.config.in_channels, 
        top//8, width//8)
latents = (latents * scheduler.init_noise_sigma).to(my_device)


Every part is able to go, and we are able to dive into the diffusion loop itself. We will maintain observe of photographs by sampling periodically all through so we are able to see how noise is step by step decreased.

photographs = []
display_every = number_inference_steps // 8

# diffusion loop
for step_idx, timestep in enumerate(scheduler.timesteps):
    with torch.no_grad():
        # concatenate latents, to run null/textual content immediate in parallel.
        model_in = torch.cat([latents] * 2)
        model_in = scheduler.scale_model_input(model_in,
        predicted_noise = unet(model_in, timestep, 
        # pnu - empty immediate unconditioned noise prediction
        # pnc - textual content immediate conditioned noise prediction
        pnu, pnc = predicted_noise.chunk(2)
        # weight noise predictions in line with steering scale
        predicted_noise = pnu + guidance_scale * (pnc - pnu)
        # replace the latents
        latents = scheduler.step(predicted_noise, 
                timestep, latents).prev_sample
        # Periodically log photographs and print progress throughout diffusion
        if step_idx % display_every == 0
                or step_idx + 1 == len(scheduler.timesteps):
           picture = vae.decode(latents / 0.18215).pattern[0]
           picture = ((picture / 2.) + 0.5).cpu().permute(1,2,0).numpy()
           picture = np.clip(picture, 0, 1.0)
           print(f"step {step_idx}/{number_inference_steps}: {timestep:.4f}")


On the finish of the diffusion course of, now we have a good rendering of what you needed to generate. Subsequent, we’ll go over extra methods for higher management. As we’ve already made our diffusion pipeline, we are able to use the streamlined diffusion pipeline from HuggingFace for the remainder of our examples.


Controlling the Diffusion Pipeline


We’ll use a set of helper features on this part:

def seed_all(seed):

def grid_show(photographs, rows=3):
    number_images = len(photographs)
    top, width = photographs[0].dimension
    columns = int(np.ceil(number_images / rows))
    grid = np.zeros((top*rows,width*columns,3))
    for ii, picture in enumerate(photographs):
                ii%columns*width:ii%columns*width+width] = picture
        fig, ax = plt.subplots(1,1, figsize=(3*columns, 3*rows))
        ax.imshow(grid / grid.max())
    return grid, fig, ax

def callback_stash_latents(ii, tt, latents):
    # tailored from fastai/diffusion-nbs/stable_diffusion.ipynb
    latents = 1.0 / 0.18215 * latents
    picture = pipe.vae.decode(latents).pattern[0]
    picture = (picture / 2. + 0.5).cpu().permute(1,2,0).numpy()
    picture = np.clip(picture, 0, 1.0)

my_seed = 193


We’ll begin with essentially the most well-known and easy software of diffusion fashions: picture era from textual prompts, often known as text-to-image era. The mannequin we’ll use was launched into the wild (of the Hugging Face Hub) by the tutorial lab that printed the latent diffusion paper. Hugging Face coordinates workflows like latent diffusion by way of the handy pipeline API. We need to outline what system and what floating level to calculate based mostly on if now we have or would not have a GPU.

if (1):
    #Run CompVis/stable-diffusion-v1-4 on GPU
    pipe_name = "CompVis/stable-diffusion-v1-4"
    my_dtype = torch.float16
    my_device = torch.system("cuda")
    my_variant = "fp16"
    pipe = StableDiffusionPipeline.from_pretrained(pipe_name,
    safety_checker=None, variant=my_variant,
    #Run CompVis/stable-diffusion-v1-4 on CPU
    pipe_name = "CompVis/stable-diffusion-v1-4"
    my_dtype = torch.float32
    my_device = torch.system("cpu")
    pipe = StableDiffusionPipeline.from_pretrained(pipe_name, 


Steering Scale

If you happen to use a really uncommon textual content immediate (very in contrast to these within the dataset), it’s attainable to finish up in a less-traveled a part of latent house. The null immediate embedding offers a steadiness and mixing the 2 in line with guidance_scale lets you commerce off the specificity of your immediate towards widespread picture traits.

guidance_images = []
for steering in [0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, 8.0, 10.0, 20.0]:
    my_output = pipe(my_prompt, num_inference_steps=50, 
    num_images_per_prompt=1, guidance_scale=steering)
    for ii, img in enumerate(my_output.photographs):

temp = grid_show(guidance_images, rows=3)


Since we generated the immediate utilizing the 9 steering coefficients, you may plot the immediate and look at how the diffusion developed. The default steering coefficient is 0.75 so on the seventh picture could be the default picture output.


Adverse Prompts

Typically latent diffusion actually “desires” to provide a picture that doesn’t match your intentions. In these situations, you should use a unfavourable immediate to push the diffusion course of away from undesirable outputs. For instance, we may use a unfavourable immediate to make our Martian astronaut diffusion outputs rather less human.

my_prompt = " "
my_negative_prompt = " "

output_x = pipe(my_prompt, num_inference_steps=50, num_images_per_prompt=9, 

temp = grid_show(output_x)


It’s best to obtain outputs that observe your immediate whereas avoiding outputting the issues described in your unfavourable immediate.


Picture Variation

Textual content-to-image era from scratch will not be the one software for diffusion pipelines. Really, diffusion is well-suited for picture modification, ranging from an preliminary picture. We’ll use a barely completely different pipeline and pre-trained mannequin tuned for image-to-image diffusion.

pipe_img2img = AutoPipelineForImage2Image.from_pretrained(

        "runwayml/stable-diffusion-v1-5", safety_checker=None,

torch_dtype=my_dtype, use_safetensors=True).to(my_device)


One software of this strategy is to generate variations on a theme. An idea artist may use this method to rapidly iterate completely different concepts for illustrating an exoplanet based mostly on the newest analysis.

We’ll first obtain a public area artist’s idea of planet 1e within the TRAPPIST system (credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech).
Then, after downscaling to take away particulars, we’ll use a diffusion pipeline to make a number of completely different variations of the exoplanet TRAPPIST-1e.

url = 
img_path = url.break up("https://www.kdnuggets.com/")[-1]
if not (os.path.exists("600px-TRAPPIST-1e_artist_impression_2018.png")):
    os.system(f"wget      '{url}'")
    init_image = Picture.open(img_path)


trappist_prompt = "Artist's impression of TRAPPIST-1e"
                  "giant Earth-like water-world exoplanet with oceans,"
                  "NASA, artist idea, practical, detailed, intricate"

my_negative_prompt = "cartoon, sketch, orbiting moon"

my_output_trappist1e = pipe_img2img(immediate=trappist_prompt, num_images_per_prompt=9, 
     picture=init_image, negative_prompt=my_negative_prompt, guidance_scale=6.0)


diffusion image variation testdiffusion image variation test

By feeding the mannequin an instance preliminary picture, we are able to generate related photographs. You can even use a text-guided image-to-image pipeline to vary the fashion of a picture by growing the steering, including unfavourable prompts and extra corresponding to “non-realistic” or “watercolor” or “paper sketch.” Your mile could fluctuate and adjusting your prompts would be the best strategy to discover the proper picture you need to create.



Regardless of the discourse behind diffusion techniques and imitating human generated artwork, diffusion fashions produce other extra impactful functions. It has been applied to protein folding prediction for protein design and drug improvement. Textual content-to-video can also be an active area of research and is obtainable by a number of firms (e.g. Stability AI, Google). Diffusion can also be an emerging approach for text-to-speech purposes.

It’s clear that the diffusion course of is taking a central position within the evolution of AI and the interplay of expertise with the worldwide human atmosphere. Whereas the intricacies of copyright, different mental property legal guidelines, and the influence on human artwork and science are evident in each constructive and unfavourable methods. However what is really a constructive is the unprecedented functionality AI has to grasp language and generate photographs. It was AlexNet that had computer systems analyze a picture and output textual content, and solely now computer systems can analyze textual prompts and output coherent photographs.

Original. Republished with permission.

Kevin Vu manages Exxact Corp blog and works with a lot of its gifted authors who write about completely different elements of Deep Studying.

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