Obtain peak efficiency and enhance scalability utilizing a number of Amazon Redshift serverless workgroups and Community Load Balancer

As information analytics use instances develop, components of scalability and concurrency turn into essential for companies. Your analytic answer structure ought to be capable to deal with massive information volumes at excessive concurrency and with out compromising velocity, thereby delivering a scalable high-performance analytics atmosphere.

Amazon Redshift Serverless gives a completely managed, petabyte-scale, auto scaling cloud information warehouse to help high-concurrency analytics. It presents information analysts, builders, and scientists a quick, versatile analytic atmosphere to realize insights from their information with optimum price-performance. Redshift Serverless auto scales throughout utilization spikes, enabling enterprises to cost-effectively assist meet altering enterprise calls for. You’ll be able to profit from this simplicity with out altering your current analytics and enterprise intelligence (BI) functions.

To assist meet demanding efficiency wants like excessive concurrency, utilization spikes, and quick question response occasions whereas optimizing prices, this publish proposes utilizing Redshift Serverless. The proposed answer goals to handle three key efficiency necessities:

  • Help hundreds of concurrent connections with excessive availability through the use of a number of Redshift Serverless endpoints behind a Network Load Balancer
  • Accommodate tons of of concurrent queries with low-latency service degree agreements by way of scalable and distributed workgroups
  • Allow subsecond response occasions for brief queries in opposition to massive datasets utilizing the quick question processing of Amazon Redshift

The prompt structure makes use of a number of Redshift Serverless endpoints accessed by way of a single Community Load Balancer shopper endpoint. The Community Load Balancer evenly distributes incoming requests throughout workgroups. This improves efficiency and reduces latency by scaling out sources to satisfy excessive throughput and low latency calls for.

Resolution overview

The next diagram outlines a Redshift Serverless structure with a number of Amazon Redshift managed VPC endpoints behind a Community Load Balancer.

The next are the primary parts of this structure:

  • Amazon Redshift information sharing – This lets you securely share reside information throughout Redshift clusters, workgroups, AWS accounts, and AWS Areas with out manually shifting or copying the information. Customers can see up-to-date and constant info in Amazon Redshift as quickly because it’s up to date. With Amazon Redshift data sharing, the ingestion will be finished on the producer or shopper endpoint, permitting the opposite shopper endpoints to learn and write the identical information and thereby enabling horizontal scaling.
  • Community Load Balancer – This serves as the one level of contact for shoppers. The load balancer distributes incoming visitors throughout a number of targets, reminiscent of Redshift Serverless managed VPC endpoints. This will increase the provision, scalability, and efficiency of your utility. You’ll be able to add a number of listeners to your load balancer. A listener checks for connection requests from shoppers, utilizing the protocol and port that you just configure, and forwards requests to a goal group. A goal group routes requests to a number of registered targets, reminiscent of Redshift Serverless managed VPC endpoints, utilizing the protocol and the port quantity that you just specify.
  • VPC – Redshift Serverless is provisioned in a VPC. By making a Redshift managed VPC endpoint, you allow personal entry to Redshift Serverless from functions in one other VPC. This design means that you can scale by having a number of VPCs as wanted. The VPC endpoint gives a dedicate personal IP for every Redshift Serverless workgroup for use because the goal teams on the Community Load Balancer.

Create an Amazon Redshift managed VPC endpoint

Full the next steps to create the Amazon Redshift managed VPC endpoint:

  1. On the Redshift Serverless console, select Workgroup configuration within the navigation pane.
  2. Select a workgroup from the checklist.
  3. On the Knowledge entry tab, within the Redshift managed VPC endpoints part, select Create endpoint.
  4. Enter the endpoint title. Create a reputation that’s significant on your group.
  5. The AWS account ID shall be populated. That is your 12-digit account ID.
  6. Select a VPC the place the endpoint shall be created.
  7. Select a subnet ID. In the most typical use case, this can be a subnet the place you’ve gotten a shopper that you just need to connect with your Redshift Serverless occasion.
  8. Select which VPC safety teams so as to add. Every safety group acts as a digital firewall to manage inbound and outbound visitors to sources protected by the safety group, reminiscent of particular digital desktop cases.

The next screenshot exhibits an instance of this workgroup. Observe down the IP tackle to make use of throughout the creation of the goal group.

Repeat these steps to create all of your Redshift Serverless workgroups.

Add VPC endpoints for the goal group for the Community Load Balancer

So as to add these VPC endpoints to the goal group for the Community Load Balancer utilizing Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2), full the next steps:

  1. On the Amazon EC2 console, select Goal teams underneath Load Balancing within the navigation pane.
  2. Select Create goal group.
  3. For Select a goal sort, choose Cases to register targets by occasion ID, or choose IP addresses to register targets by IP tackle.
  4. For Goal group title, enter a reputation for the goal group.
  5. For Protocol, select TCP or TCP_UDP.
  6. For Port, use 5439 (Amazon Redshift port).
  7. For IP tackle sort, select IPv4 or IPv6. This selection is offered provided that the goal sort is Cases or IP addresses and the protocol is TCP or TLS.
  8. You will need to affiliate an IPv6 goal group with a dual-stack load balancer. All targets within the goal group will need to have the identical IP tackle sort. You’ll be able to’t change the IP tackle sort of a goal group after you create it.
  9. For VPC, select the VPC with the targets to register.
  10. Depart the default picks for the Well being checks part, Attributes part, and Tags part.

Create a load balancer

After you create the goal group, you’ll be able to create your load balancer. We advocate utilizing port 5439 (Amazon Redshift default port) for it.

The Community Load Balancer serves as a single-access endpoint and shall be used on connections to achieve Amazon Redshift. This lets you add extra Redshift Serverless workgroups and improve the concurrency transparently.

Testing the answer

We examined this structure to run three BI stories with the TPC-DS dataset (cloud benchmark dataset) as our information. Amazon Redshift consists of this dataset free of charge once you select to load sample data (sample_data_dev database). The set up additionally gives the queries to check the setup.

Amongst all of the queries from TPC-DS benchmark, we selected the following three to make use of as our report queries. We modified the primary two report queries to make use of a CREATE TABLE AS SELECT (CTAS) question on momentary tables as an alternative of the WITH clause to emulate choices you’ll be able to see on a typical BI software. For our testing, we additionally disabled the result cache to be sure that Amazon Redshift would run the queries each time.

The set of queries incorporates the creation of momentary tables, a be a part of between these tables, and the cleanup. The cleanup step drops tables. This isn’t wanted as a result of they’re deleted on the finish of the session, however this goals to simulate all that the BI software does.

We used Apache JMETER to simulate shoppers invoking the requests. To be taught extra about the way to use and configure Apache JMETER with Amazon Redshift, discuss with Building high-quality benchmark tests for Amazon Redshift using Apache JMeter.

For the assessments, we used the next configurations:

  • Take a look at 1 – A single 96 RPU Redshift Serverless vs. three workgroups at 32 RPU every
  • Take a look at 2 – A single 48 RPU Redshift Serverless vs. three workgroups at 16 RPU every

We examined three stories by spawning 100 classes per report (300 complete). There have been 14 statements throughout the three stories (4,200 complete). All classes had been triggered concurrently.

The next desk summarizes the tables used within the check.

Desk Title Row Depend
Catalog_page 93,744
Catalog_sales 23,064,768
Customer_address 50,000
Buyer 100,000
Date_dim 73,049
Merchandise 144,000
Promotion 2,400
Store_returns 4,600,224
Store_sales 46,086,464
Retailer 96
Web_returns 1,148,208
Web_sales 11,510,144
Web_site 240

Some tables had been modified by ingesting extra information than what the TPC-DS schema presents on Amazon Redshift. Knowledge was reinserted on the desk to extend the scale.

Take a look at outcomes

The next desk summarizes our check outcomes.

TEST 1 . Time Consumed Variety of Queries Value Max Scaled RPU Efficiency
Single: 96 RPUs 0:02:06 2,100 $6 279 Base
Parallel: 3x 32 RPUs 0:01:06 2,100 $1.20 96 48.03%
Parallel 1 (32 RPU) 0:01:03 688 $0.40 32 50.10%
Parallel 2 (32 RPU) 0:01:03 703 $0.40 32 50.13%
Parallel 3 (32 RPU) 0:01:06 709 $0.40 32 48.03%
TEST 2 . Time Consumed Variety of Queries Value Max Scaled RPU Efficiency
Single: 48 RPUs 0:01:55 2,100 $3.30 168 Base
Parallel: 3x 16 RPUs 0:01:47 2,100 $1.90 96 6.77%
Parallel 1 (16 RPU) 0:01:47 712 $0.70 36 6.77%
Parallel 2 (16 RPU) 0:01:44 696 $0.50 25 9.13%
Parallel 3 (16 RPU) 0:01:46 692 $0.70 35 7.79%

The previous desk exhibits that the parallel setup was sooner than the one at a decrease value. Additionally, in our assessments, regardless that Take a look at 1 had double the capability of Take a look at 2 for the parallel setup, the associated fee was nonetheless 36% decrease and the velocity was 39% sooner. Based mostly on these outcomes, we are able to conclude that for workloads which have excessive throughput (I/O), low latency, and excessive concurrency necessities, this structure is cost-efficient and performant. Consult with the AWS Pricing Cost Calculator for Network Load Balancer and VPC endpoints pricing.

Redshift Serverless routinely scales the capability to ship optimum efficiency during times of peak workloads together with spikes in concurrency of the workload. That is evident from the utmost scaled RPU leads to the previous desk.

Not too long ago launched options of Redshift Serverless reminiscent of MaxRPU and AI-driven scaling weren’t used for this check. These new options can improve the price-performance of the workload even additional.

We advocate enabling cross-zone load balancing on the Community Load Balancer as a result of it distributes requests from shoppers to registered targets. Enabling cross-zone load balancing will assist stability the requests among the many Redshift Serverless managed VPC endpoints no matter the Availability Zone they’re configured in. Additionally, if the Community Load Balancer receives visitors from just one server (identical IP), you must all the time use an odd variety of Redshift Serverless managed VPC endpoints behind the Community Load Balancer.


On this publish, we mentioned a scalable structure that will increase the throughput of Redshift Serverless in low latency, excessive concurrency situations. Having a number of Redshift Serverless workgroups behind a Community Load Balancer can ship a horizontally scalable answer at one of the best price-performance.

Moreover, Redshift Serverless makes use of AI techniques (at present in preview) to scale routinely with workload modifications throughout all key dimensions—reminiscent of information quantity modifications, concurrent customers, and question complexity—to satisfy and preserve your price-performance targets.

We hope this publish gives you with helpful steerage. We welcome any ideas or questions within the feedback part.

Concerning the Authors

Ricardo Serafim is a Senior Analytics Specialist Options Architect at AWS.

Harshida Patel is a Analytics Specialist Principal Options Architect, with AWS.

Urvish Shah is a Senior Database Engineer at Amazon Redshift. He has greater than a decade of expertise engaged on databases, information warehousing and in analytics area. Outdoors of labor, he enjoys cooking, travelling and spending time along with his daughter.

Amol Gaikaiwari is a Sr. Redshift Specialist centered on serving to clients understand their enterprise outcomes with optimum Redshift price-performance. He likes to simplify information pipelines and improve capabilities by way of adoption of newest Redshift options.

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